To make the shortcrust, add the flour, butter in a food processor and pulse it until the butter and the four resemble cornmeal. Add the water and pulse a few more times until the dough comes together. Wrap the dough up in plastic wrap and refrigerate it until you're ready to use it.
Roll out the pastry dough into a thin circle and use it to line a 9 inch tart pan or pie pan.
Preheat the oven to 375 F degrees and place a baking sheet in the oven.
In a food processor add the blanched almonds and pulse until they are finely ground. Add the butter and process again until they get creamy, add sugar, the egg and the egg white, almond extract and mix well.
Pour the almond cream into the pastry shell.
The pears need to be pealed and cut in half, then remove the cores and rub them with the lemon juice. With the pear halves cut side down on a cutting board, slice them thinly crosswise.
Press down on the top of the slices to fan out the pear slices. Use a spatula to transfer the pear to the tart as you see in the picture below. Repeat with remaining pear halves.
Place the tart pan on the hot baking sheet and bake it for about 50 to 55 minutes, make sure the almond filling is set and golden brown.
In a small sauce pan heat the water or brandy and jam, then use this to brush the top of the hot tart to glaze it.
Serve at room temperature.